Almost two third of electricity requirement of the world is fulfilled by thermal power plants or thermal power stations. In these power stationssteam is produced by burning some fossil fuel e. Thus, a thermal power station may sometimes called as a Steam Power Station. After the steam passes through the steam turbine, it is condensed in a condenser and again fed back into the boiler to become steam.
This is known as ranking cycle. This article explains how electricity is generated in thermal power plants. As majority of thermal power plants use coal as their primary fuel, this article is focused on a coal fired thermal power plant. Typical layout and working of a Thermal Power Plant A simplified layout of a thermal power station is shown below. Coal: In a coal based thermal power plant, coal is transported from coal mines to the generating station.
Generally, bituminous coal or brown coal is used as fuel. The coal is stored in either 'dead storage' or in 'live storage'. Dead storage is generally 40 days backup coal storage which is used when coal supply is unavailable. Live storage is a raw coal bunker in boiler house. The coal is cleaned in a magnetic cleaner to filter out if any iron particles are present which may cause wear and tear in the equipment.
The coal from live storage is first crushed in small particles and then taken into pulverizer to make it in powdered form. Fine powdered coal undergoes complete combustion, and thus pulverized coal improves efficiency of the boiler. The ash produced after the combustion of coal is taken out of the boiler furnace and then properly disposed.
Periodic removal of ash from the boiler furnace is necessary for the proper combustion. Boiler : The mixture of pulverized coal and air usually preheated air is taken into boiler and then burnt in the combustion zone. On ignition of fuel a large fireball is formed at the center of the boiler and large amount of heat energy is radiated from it.
The heat energy is utilized to convert the water into steam at high temperature and pressure.
Steel tubes run along the boiler walls in which water is converted in steam. The flue gases from the boiler make their way through superheater, economizer, air preheater and finally get exhausted to the atmosphere from the chimney. The superheated high pressure steam is then fed to the steam turbine. Economizer : An economizer is essentially a feed water heater which heats the water before supplying to the boiler.
Air pre-heater : The primary air fan takes air from the atmosphere and it is then warmed in the air pre-heater. Pre-heated air is injected with coal in the boiler. The advantage of pre-heating the air is that it improves the coal combustion.Sheetal bhausaheb patil
Steam turbine : High pressure super heated steam is fed to the steam turbine which causes turbine blades to rotate. Energy in the steam is converted into mechanical energy in the steam turbine which acts as the prime mover.All solar thermal power systems have solar energy collectors with two main components: reflectors mirrors that capture and focus sunlight onto a receiver.
In most types of systems, a heat-transfer fluid is heated and circulated in the receiver and used to produce steam.
The steam is converted into mechanical energy in a turbine, which powers a generator to produce electricity. Solar thermal power systems have tracking systems that keep sunlight focused onto the receiver throughout the day as the sun changes position in the sky. Solar thermal power plants usually have a large field or array of collectors that supply heat to a turbine and generator.
Several solar thermal power facilities in the United States have two or more solar power plants with separate arrays and generators. Solar thermal power systems may also have a thermal energy storage system component that allows the solar collector system to heat an energy storage system during the day, and the heat from the storage system is used to produce electricity in the evening or during cloudy weather.
Solar thermal power plants may also be hybrid systems that use other fuels usually natural gas to supplement energy from the sun during periods of low solar radiation. Linear concentrating systems collect the sun's energy using long, rectangular, curved U-shaped mirrors. The mirrors focus sunlight onto receivers tubes that run the length of the mirrors. The concentrated sunlight heats a fluid flowing through the tubes.
The fluid is sent to a heat exchanger to boil water in a conventional steam-turbine generator to produce electricity. There are two major types of linear concentrator systems: parabolic trough systems, where receiver tubes are positioned along the focal line of each parabolic mirror, and linear Fresnel reflector systems, where one receiver tube is positioned above several mirrors to allow the mirrors greater mobility in tracking the sun.
A linear concentrating collector power plant has a large number, or fieldof collectors in parallel rows that are typically aligned in a north-south orientation to maximize solar energy collection.
This configuration enables the mirrors to track the sun from east to west during the day and concentrate sunlight continuously onto the receiver tubes.
A parabolic trough collector has a long parabolic-shaped reflector that focuses the sun's rays on a receiver pipe located at the focus of the parabola. The collector tilts with the sun to keep sunlight focused on the receiver as the sun moves from east to west during the day. Parabolic trough linear concentrating systems are used in the longest operating solar thermal power facility in the world, the Solar Energy Generating System SEGS.
The facility, with nine separate plants, is located in the Mojave Desert in California. In combination, the seven currently operating SEGS III—IX plants have a total net summer electric generation capacity of about MW, making them one of the largest solar thermal electric power facilities in the world.
Solar Power System - How does it work?
In addition to the SEGS, many other parabolic trough solar power projects operate in the United States and around the world. The other parabolic-trough solar thermal electric projects in the United States and their net summer generation capacity and location are. Linear Fresnel reflector LFR systems are similar to parabolic trough systems in that mirrors reflectors concentrate sunlight onto a receiver located above the mirrors. These reflectors use the Fresnel lens effect, which allows for a concentrating mirror with a large aperture and short focal length.
These systems are capable of concentrating the sun's energy to approximately 30 times its normal intensity. Compact linear Fresnel reflectors CLFR —also referred to as concentrating linear Fresnel reflectors—are a type of LFR technology that has multiple absorbers within the vicinity of the mirrors. Multiple receivers allow the mirrors to change their inclination to minimize how much they block adjacent reflectors' access to sunlight.
This positioning improves system efficiency and reduces material requirements and costs. A demonstration CLFR solar power plant was built near Bakersfield, California, in but it is currently not operational. A solar power tower system uses a large field of flat, sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver on the top of a tower. Sunlight can be concentrated as much as 1, times. Some power towers use water as the heat-transfer fluid.Amy Beaudet September 2, Are you interested in designing an off-grid solar system?
Here are the 6 steps to get you started. Planning a solar system without knowing how much power you need is like planning a car trip and not knowing how far you are going, and in what vehicle. Ok, now go buy gas for the trip. How much? Well, that depends on your distance and gas mileage.
Same with solar. Use our load calculator and enter what you will be powering with your solar power system. Now that you know how much power you need, you need to figure out how many batteries you need to store it. Batteries are rated for storage at around 80 degrees Fahrenheit.
Each of these answers affects the size, and cost, of your battery bank. What voltage battery bank do you need — 12V, 24V, or 48V? Generally, the larger the system, the higher voltage battery banks are used to keep the number of parallel strings to a minimum and reduce the amount of current between the battery bank and the inverter. If you are just having a small system, and want to be able to charge your cell phone and power 12V DC appliances in your RV, then a basic 12V battery bank makes sense.
And unless you live near the equator, you do not have the same number of hours of sunlight in the winter as you do in the summer. You want to take the worst case scenario for your area, the season with the least amount of sunshine that you will be using the system.
That way, you do not end up short on solar energy for part of the year. Alright, so we have batteries and we have solar, now we need a way to manage putting the power from the solar into the batteries. An extremely rough calculation to figure out what size solar charge controller you need is to take the watts from the solar, and divide it by the battery bank voltage. In short, if the voltage of the solar panel array matches the voltage of the battery bank, you can use a PWM charge controller.
Now that we have efficiently charged batteries, we need to make the power usable. If you are only running DC loads straight off your battery bank, you can skip this step. But, if you are powering any AC loads, you need to convert the direct current from the batteries into alternating current for your appliances.
It is very important to know what type of AC power you need. In some islands, it is an interesting mixture of both. So check the specs carefully of the inverter you are interested in to make sure it matches your needs.
If you do have the North American standard, you must figure out if you have any appliances that use V, or if they are all just V. Some inverters are able to put out V, and you can wire the output to use either V or V. Other inverters are stackable, each one outputting V, but when wired together, or stacked, can create V. And others are only capable of outputting V, and cannot be stacked.
Again, read the specs to determine which inverter is right for you. You also need to know how many watts total your inverter will need to power. Luckily, way back in step one, you created a loads list that figured out both the constant watts and surge requirements of your loads. Please note that an inverter is designed for a specific voltage battery bank, like 12, 24 or 48 volt, so you need to know what voltage battery bank you are going to have before you settle on the inverter.
Keep this in mind if you think you may be growing your system in the future. So either plan ahead and go with the higher voltage to begin with, or plan on changing out your inverter in the future. Amy Beaudet September 2, DIY Solar TipsOff-Grid SolarVideos diy solarinvertermppt charge controlleroff grid batteryoff grid solaroff grid solar power systempwm charge controllersolar charge controllerssolar panels.This Instructable is on how to build a battery power pack that charges from the sun.
Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson.
Deep cycle batteries are made to be fully charged and discharged; unlike car batteries which are not supposed to be fully discharged. The battery is rated 75 amp hours. The inverter converts the battery power DC into regular AC power. The inverter is rated watts. I bought the solar panel at a farm supply store. The Solar Panel is rated 5 Watts. I bought this toolbox because I thought everything would fit in it well, and it had wheels which would make it easier to transport.
Before I started wiring I had to put in a utility box for all the connections. I removed three of the punch outs on the utility box; the middle bottom one, the middle side one, and the one end one. I screwed on and tightened a compression fitting on one end. That is where the wires going to the 12 volt plug will go through. Next I cut a hole for the input power plug. I mounted it so that the connection end of the input plug would go directly into the utility box. Once they were on, I used a lighter to shrink the heat shrink tube on the ring conector.
I ran the battery wires up though the hole in the bottom of the utility box and soldered everything together. To keep them from shorting out I put heat shrink tube on all the connections. Next I tightened the compression fittings to prevent the wires from being pulled out.
Since all the connections in the utility box had been made, I screwed the lid on. First I drilled holes and ran the two wires through. Then I cut and stripped the wires just long enough to reach to the battery from the inverter.How to turn into a mermaid in minecraft no mods
After that I crimped small ring connectors on the inverter ends of the wires and large ones on the battery ends. Once both ends of both wires had ring connectors, I shrunk the heat shrink with a lighter.
Once it's charged you'll be able to use free power from the sun. If you have any questions I would be glad to answer them. Also feel free to post pictures of your own creations. Reply 9 years ago on Introduction. There are also many other places you can get them from.
If you don't have a meijer near your house, you could get one from a hardware store or from Northerntools. Yeah, good work! I was going to have the solar panel always connected to the battery - with a trickle charge indicator that will shut off current into the battery.
Have fun with your project, it's the best damn idea people don't have yet! Reply 10 years ago on Step Yes, the SPST is for the solar panel charging the battery. The reason why is because I didn't install a charge controller that prevents overcharging and so I put a switch to control charging manually. Also mine does have a 2 standard wall plugs and a USB port; that is what the inverter is for.Solar panels simply absorb sunlight, and spit out electricity.
However that electricity is in a form that is not very useful to us — Low Voltage, Direct Current Electricity. Solar inverters are the next most expensive bit of kit and can come with some really nice features, if you are willing to pay for them, such as:.
Power Monitoring: A little display on the inverter will tell you how much power you are generating at any one time. Remote Power Monitoring: If watching how much electricity you are making turns you on and why not? A remote monitoring system is a separate display that wirelessly receives monitoring signals from the inverter. This means you can sit in your favourite chair and monitor your power production.
The remote display will even have some logging functions so you can look at power use over time, and see how the weather etc.
PC Interface: For the really geeky, some meters interface to your PC and the Web so you can view your system status from anywhere and do all sorts of graphing and analysis of your power generation. Expandability: If you think you may want to expand your system at a later stage, you should consider an inverter that is expandable. That means that you just plug an expansion pack into the inverter, then add extra PV panels instead of having to buy and install a whole, new extra inverter.
Although the materials to do this are not so expensive, the labour can be. The disconnect switch is needed in case you need to isolate the solar PV panels for maintenance or if something goes wrong with them. This switch will simply stop the solar system from feeding power to your inverter and the grid if there is a problem. A word of caution here; there is a specific shutdown procedure that should be followed when disconnecting your solar PV panels and or inverter — follow instructions or better still, get a qualified installer to conduct any maintenance work.
All the voltages in a Solar PV system can potentially be lethal! You will need a new electricity meter to cope with importing and exporting electricity to the grid. Your electric utility company will install this for you. This means that you may pay different amounts for electricity depending on when you use it.
The good news is that if you use your appliances intelligently this can actually reduce your bills further.
Solar Power System - How does it work?
But you need to know what you are signing up for. Be sure to have a good chat with your utility about this. Ready for some quotes? Enter your postcode now. To get your quotes, please enter your postcode:.If you're new here, and just looking for information about local solar installers, you can Click Here to request a free cost estimate for your home. Thanks for visiting! Solar energy production encompasses several power sources, both passive and active.
The easiest way to think about these is: am I using solar energy to heat water solar hot water and CSP or am I converting sunlight directly into electricity photovoltaic cells? Solar power electricity is produced in two ways: by direct transformation of solar energy into current through photovoltaic panels solar PVor by the concentration of solar energy to create steam and drive a turbine concentrated solar power.
Solar energy in the form of light hits the solar panel, which excites electrons in the panel and creates an electric current.
How to Build a Solar Power Station
In some areas the homeowner can be compensated for this surplus power. More: How does solar power work? Passive solar refers to any structural design element that converts sunlight into usable heat.
This crude but effective diagram illustrates how simple design can have substantial impacts on home heating. The slope of the roof prevents high summer sun from shining into the home, while the lower winter sun has direct access.
In the summer this type of home will stay cool, while winters will provide plenty of heat—all without any additional energy input. Solar hot water is quite different from solar photovoltaics. The hot water is passes into a tank that contains a heat exchanger usually used in conjunction with the hot water heater already installed in the home.
As heat is exchanged in the tank, the water is pumped back up to the solar collector determined by a controller unit. Cold water that passes through the tank heats up and makes its way to your tap. Concentrated solar power, or CSP, works by using an array of lenses or mirrors to focus a large area of sunlight solar thermal energy onto a small area.
Most CSP systems work by heating up water which, in the form of steam, drives a steam turbine and produces electrical power. See a video of concentrated solar power. CSV is one of the newest forms of solar technology.Cabezuela segovia
These systems focus a large amount of sunlight onto a small photvoltaic area—sort of like a mini solar panel. However, compared to standard solar panels, CSV systems are typically much cheaper to produce since the use of expensive parts solar cells are minimized.
Hello I am a nine year old boy from New Zealand. I am involved in Kid Witness News and I am making a short documentry with 4 of my class mates. I was wondering if I could get permission to use your solar energy diagrams in my video to explane how solar energy works?
Could you please let me know as soon as possible. Thank you very much. Thanks very much for these basic training diagrams. They are good and helpful. However, they are meant for beginners in the US. My request: could you please compile many more diagrams that could be suitable for users students, teachers and trainers at different levels and with relevance to other regions of the earth. Thanks again K.
Name required. E-mail required, never displayed. Category: Solar Energy Infographics. By Cole Parker at June 19th, Plus, We do COM! Customers Own Material in any design for custom window treatments.
Solar Simulator. Solar Projects.How Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Works
Example Systems. Solar Energy Home. Design Tools. Run your own Solar Energy System! Home Page. System Simulation. About Solar Power. Easy 5 Step Guide. Solar Combiner Box. Mini Junction Box. Basic Tutorials :.
Solar Panels. Charge Controllers. Power Inverters. Storage Batteries. AC Generators. Advanced Info :. Solar Radiation. Battery Wiring Diagrams. Design Tools :.React cursor pointer not working
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